How flash drives work?

Today the world runs on data.From everyday home life to office data are being used,stored and sorted out.In this age of modern storage we have reached a point where its not possible to think life without these.Flash memories are part and parcel of our life now.Lets have a look about their internal workings to get a wider view about them:

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Flash memories are mainly a type of EEPROM chips.EEPROM stands for Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.It consists of a cell and two transistors at each end.A thin oxide layer separates the two transistors.One transistor is called the ‘control gate’ and the other ‘floating gate’.The floating gate connect to the wordline through the ‘floating gate’.All the data transfers in form of  electrical signals are done by a process known as ‘tunneling’.


Tunneling alters the placement of electrons in the floating gate.An electrical charge of 10-13 volts is applied to the floating gate and alter drains to the ground.As a result the floating gate transistor acts like an electron gun.Than these moderately excited electrons are  put on the other side of the thin oxide layer,therefore it gets a negative charge.These electrons of negative charge works as a barrier between the control and floating gate.A sensor monitors the flow of charges through the floating gate.If flow is above 50% threshold the value in sensor turns to 1 else it  is 0.A electric field is used to make the value return to 1 in the microchip.In flash memories in-circuit wiring is used to turn on the electric field on the whole chip or a specified area.This whole process of the electric field erases the relatively targeted area of the chip which can again be rewritten anytime.

The total process works roughly as a loop.



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What are the new storage systems?

With the rapid development of modern storage systems in digital devices we are also seeing the shrinking size as well.World’s first hard drive was the size of two refrigerators.But now a days it has become the size of our thumb finger.Yes these are the future of digital storage.Lets have a look at the current gadgets equipped with the latest storage systems:


USB Pendrive:The most commonly used storage are the pendrives.They are usually 2.5-3.5 inches in length and very slim.They are the most suitable for everyday use for all aspects in life starting from office to home.



 Recently with the integration of usb 3.0 these storage devices are getting very fast.And maybe one day soon enough they could even outclass the SATA hard drives currently used in our pc.


Memory cards: Memory cards are the latest form of digital storage.They are paving the way to the future of storage.First memory cards started getting used in cell phones and quickly made their way through to tablets,laptops and pcs.There are 2 sizes of them available.Micro and SD.Micro is smaller,its is usually the size of the tip of your thumb finger.


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SD is almost twice the volume of micro.Today there are upto 64GB micro memory cards available in market.In 2003 a 40GB har drive would be close to 5 inches in length and over 3 inches in width.Now you can store much more data in your finger tips space.Only problem with memory cards are the low reading speed compared to pendrives and hard drives.More research is being done to overcome it.

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